In 2007, WHO published Environmental Health Criteria Monograph No 238 on Extremely Low Frequency Fields.  See also WHO's statements on static fields.

The following are extracts (the full chapter is longer) from Chapter 1 "Summary and Recommendations for further work".  This summarises the more detailed conclusions in the remaining chapters.  As well as these scientific judgements, the Monograph also contains policy recommendations.

1.1.5 Neuroendocrine system

The results of volunteer studies as well as residential and occupational epidemiological studies suggest that the neuroendocrine system is not adversely affected by exposure to power-frequency electric or magnetic fields. This applies particularly to the circulating levels of specific hormones of the neuroendocrine system, including melatonin, released by the pineal gland, and to a number of  hormones involved in the control of body metabolism and physiology, released by the pituitary gland.

1.1.6 Neurodegenerative disorders

It has been hypothesized that exposure to ELF fields is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. For Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis the number of studies has been small and there is no evidence for an association with these diseases. For Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophiclateral sclerosis (ALS) more studies have been published. Some of these reports suggest that people employed in electrical occupations might have an increased risk of ALS. So far, no biological mechanism has been established which can explain this association, although it could have arisen because of confounders related to electrical occupations, such as electric shocks. Overall, the evidence for the association between ELF exposure and ALS is considered to be inadequate.

The few studies investigating the association between ELF exposure and Alzheimer's disease are inconsistent. However, the higher quality studies that focused on Alzheimer morbidity rather than mortality do not indicate an association. Altogether, the evidence for an association between ELF exposure and Alzheimer's disease is inadequate.

1.1.7 Cardiovascular disorders

Experimental studies of both short-term and long-term exposure indicate that while electric shock is an obvious health hazard, other hazardous cardiovascular effects associated with ELF fields are unlikely to occur at exposure levels commonly encountered environmentally or occupationally. Although various cardiovascular changes have been reported in the literature, the majority of effects are small and the results have not been consistent within and between studies. With one exception, none of the studies of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality has shown an association with exposure.

Whether a specific association exists between exposure and altered autonomic control of the heart remains speculative. Overall, the evidence does not support an association between ELF exposure and cardiovascular disease.

1.1.8 Immunology and haematology

Evidence for the effects of ELF electric or magnetic fields on components of the immune system is generally inconsistent. Many of the cell populations and functional markers were unaffected by exposure. However, in some human studies with fields from 10 µT to 2 mT, changes were observed in natural killer cells, which showed both increased and decreased cell numbers, and in total white blood cell counts, which showed no change or decreased numbers. In animal studies, reduced natural killer cell activity was seen in female mice, but not in male mice or in rats of either sex. White blood cell counts also showed inconsistency, with decreases or no change reported in different studies. The animal exposures had an even broader range of 2 µT to 30 mT. The difficulty in interpreting the potential health impact of these data is due to the large variations in exposure and environmental conditions, the relatively small numbers of subjects tested and the broad range of endpoints.

There have been few studies carried out on the effects of ELF magnetic fields on the haematological system. In experiments evaluating differential white blood cell counts, exposures ranged from 2 µT to 2 mT. No consistent effects of acute exposure to ELF magnetic fields or to combined ELF electric and magnetic fields have been found in either human or animal studies.

Overall therefore, the evidence for effects of ELF electric or magnetic fields on the immune and haematological system is considered inadequate.

1.1.9 Reproduction and development

On the whole, epidemiological studies have not shown an association between adverse human reproductive outcomes and maternal or paternal exposure to ELF fields. There is some evidence for an increased risk of miscarriage associated with maternal magnetic field exposure, but this evidence is inadequate.

Overall, the evidence for developmental and reproductive effects is inadequate.

1.1.10 Cancer

The IARC classification of ELF magnetic fields as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" (IARC, 2002) is based upon all of the available data prior to and including 2001. The review of literature in this EHC monograph focuses mainly on studies published after the IARC review.


The IARC classification was heavily influenced by the associations observed in epidemiological studies on childhood leukaemia. The classification of this evidence as limited does not change with the addition of two childhood leukaemia studies published after 2002. Since the publication of the IARC monograph the evidence for other childhood cancers remains inadequate.

Subsequent to the IARC monograph a number of reports have been published concerning the risk of female breast cancer in adults associated with ELF magnetic field exposure. These studies are larger than the previous ones and less susceptible to bias, and overall are negative. With these studies, the evidence for an association between ELF magnetic field exposure and the risk of female breast cancer is weakened considerably and does not support an association of this kind.

In the case of adult brain cancer and leukaemia, the new studies published after the IARC monograph do not change the conclusion that the overall evidence for an association between ELF magnetic fields and the risk of these diseases remains inadequate.

For other diseases and all other cancers, the evidence remains inadequate.

Overall conclusion

New human, animal and in vitro studies, published since the 2002 IARC monograph, do not change the overall classification of ELF magnetic fields as a possible human carcinogen.

1.1.11 Health risk assessment

Chronic effects

Scientific evidence suggesting that everyday, chronic low-intensity (above 0.3-0.4 µT) power-frequency magnetic field exposure poses a health risk is based on epidemiological studies demonstrating a consistent pattern of increased risk for childhood leukaemia. Uncertainties in the hazard assessment include the role that control selection bias and exposure misclassification might have on the observed relationship between magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. In addition, virtually all of the laboratory evidence and the mechanistic evidence fail to support a relationship between low-level ELF magnetic fields and changes in biological function or disease status. Thus, on balance, the evidence is not strong enough to be considered causal, but sufficiently strong to remain a concern.

A number of other diseases have been investigated for possible association with ELF magnetic field exposure. These include cancers in both children and adults, depression, suicide, reproductive dysfunction, developmental disorders, immunological modifications and neurological disease.

The scientific evidence supporting a linkage between ELF magnetic fields and any of these diseases is much weaker than for childhood leukaemia and in some cases (for example, for cardiovascular disease or breast cancer) the evidence is sufficient to give confidence that magnetic fields do not cause the disease.