Annual listing of publications

We describe research into EMFs in general in our main pages on research.  This website is maintained by a utility, National Grid.  For the sake of transparency, starting with 2008, we list here peer-reviewed publications reporting research supported by National Grid.  We also describe some of the research programmes in more detail.

(please note: the EPRI research programme covers RF as well as ELF EMFs, and some of these research projects relate to occupational safety issues rather than public concerns about EMFs.  The publications are grouped broadly under the different programmes but some overlap.)

2008

Research supported through the EMF Biological Research Trust

Magnetic-field effect on the photoactivation reaction of Escherichia coli DNA photolyase. Kevin B Henbest, Kiminori Maeda, PJ Hore, Monika Joshi, Adelbert Bacher, Robert Bittl, Christiane R Timmel and Erik Schleicher. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 105 (2008) 14395-14399.

DNA and chromosomal damage in response to to intermittent extremely low frequency magnetic fields. Susanne Burdak-Rothkamm, Kai Rothkamm, Melvyn Folkard, Guarang Patel, Pat Hone, David Lloyd, Liz Ainsbury and Kevin M Prise. (2008) Mutation Research, in press (Available on-line 13 Nov 08).

Chemical compass model of avian magnetoreception. Kiminori Maeda, Kevin B Henbest, Filippo Cintolesi, Ilya Kuprov, Christopher T Rodgers, Paul A Liddell, Devens Gust, Christiane R Timmel and PJ Hore. Nature, 453 (2008) 387-390.

Role of exchange and dipolar interactions in the radical pair model of the avian magnetic compass. O Efimova and PJ Hore. Biophys. J., 94 (2008) 1565-1574. 

Research supported through EPRI

Kheifets L, Monroe J, Vergara X, Mezei G, Afifi A. Occupational electromagnetic fields and leukemia and brain cancer: an update to two meta-analyses. J Occup Environ Med 2008;50:677–88.

Thuróczy G, Jánossy G, Nagy N, Bakos J, Szabó J, Mezei G. Exposure to 50 Hz magnetic field in apartment buildings with built-in transformer stations in Hungary. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2008;131:469–73.

Mezei G, Spinelli JJ, Wong P, Borugian M, McBride ML. Assessment of selection bias in the Canadian case-control study of residential magnetic field exposure and childhood leukemia. Am J Epidemiol 2008;167:1504–10.

Kavet R, Bailey WH, Bracken TD, Patterson RM. Recent advances in research relevant to electric and magnetic field exposure guidelines. Bioelectromagnetics 2008;29:499–526.

Findlay RP, Dimbylow PJ. Calculated SAR distributions in a human voxel phantom due to the reflection of electromagnetic fields from a ground plane between 65 MHz and 2 GHz. Phys Med Biol 2008;53:2277–89

Mezei G, Gadallah M, Kheifets L. Residential magnetic field exposure and childhood brain cancer: a meta-analysis. Epidemiology 2008;19:424–30.

Ilonen K, Markkanen A, Mezei G, Juutilainen J. Indoor transformer stations as predictors of residential ELF magnetic field exposure. Bioelectromagnetics 2008;29:213–8.

Research supported through the UK Energy Networks Association

Kheifets L, Bowman JD, Checkoway H, Feychting M, Harrington M, Kavet R, Marsh G, Mezei G, Renew DC, van Wijngaarden E. Future needs of occupational epidemiology of extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields (EMF): review and recommendations. Occup Environ Med. 2008 Sep 19. [Epub ahead of print]

Research supported directly

(either directly funded or through the involvement of National Grid staff) 

Methods used to calculate exposures in two epidemiological studies of power lines in the UK. Swanson J. J Radiol Prot. 2008 Mar;28(1):45-59. Epub 2008 Feb 26.

2009

Research supported through the EMF Biological Research Trust

Possible involvement of superoxide and dioxygen with cryptochrome in avian magnetoreception: Origin of Zeeman resonances observed by in vivo EPR spectroscopy. Hannah J. Hogben, Olga Efimova, Nicola Wagner-Rundell, Christiane R. Timmel, P.J. Hore. Chemical Physics Letters 480 (2009) 118-122.

Radiofrequency field polarization effects in low-field electron paramagnetic resonance. CJ Wedge, CT Rodgers, SA Norman, N Baker, K Maeda, KB Henbest, CR Timmel and PJ Hore. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11 (2009) 6573-66579.

Radiofrequency field polarization effects in zero-field electron paramagnetic resonance. CT Rodgers, CJ Wedge, SA Norman, P Kukura, N Baker, K Maeda, KB Henbest, PJ Hore and CR Timmel. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11 (2009) 6569-6572.

Chemical magnetoreception in birds: the radical pair mechanism. Christopher T Rodgers and PJ Hore. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 106 (2009) 353-360.

Effect of magnetic fields on cryptochrome-dependent responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Sue-Re Harris, Kevin B Henbest, Kiminori Maeda, John R Pannell, Christiane R Timmel, PJ Hore and Haruko Okamoto. J. Roy. Soc. Interface (2009).

Magnetic Compass of birds is based on a molecule with optimal directional sensitivity. T Ritz, R Wiltschko, PJ Hore, CT Rodgers, T Staputt, P Thalau, CR Timmel and W Wiltschko. Biophys J., 96 (2009) 3451-3457. 

Research supported through EPRI

An integrated job exposure matrix for electrical exposures of utility workers. Bracken TD, Kavet R, Patterson RM, Fordyce TA. 2009.  J Occup Environ Hyg 6:499-509.

Spatial Averaging of Fields from Half-wave Dipole Antennas and Corresponding SAR Calculations in the NORMAN Human Voxel Model Between 65 MHz and 2 GHz. Findlay, RP; and Dimbylow, PJ. 2009.  Physics in Medicine and Biology, Volume 54, Number 8, 2009, pp. 2437-2447.

Residential magnetic fields and measures of neutral-to-earth voltage: variability within and between residences. Kavet R, Hooper HC. 2009. Health Phys 97:332-42.

Research supported through the UK Energy Networks Association

Extremely low frequency electric fields and cancer: Assessing the evidence. Kheifets L, Renew D, Sias G, Swanson J. Bioelectromagnetics. 2009 Jul 31. [Epub ahead of print]

Research supported directly

(either directly funded or through the involvement of National Grid staff) 

Comment on Valic et al., 2009.  Swanson J. Bioelectromagnetics. 2009 Jul 14. [Epub ahead of print]

2010

Research supported through the EMF Biological Research Trust

Effects of disorder and motion in a radical pair magnetoreceptor. J. C. S. Lau, N. Wagner-Rundell, C. T. Rodgers, N. J. B. Green and P. J. Hore. J. Roy. Soc. Interface 7 (2010) S257-S264.

Research supported through EPRI

A Pooled Analysis of Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields and Childhood Brain Tumors. Kheifets L, Ahlbom A, Crespi CM, Feychting M, Johansen C, Monroe J, Murphy MF, Oksuzyan S, Preston-Martin S, Roman E, Saito T, Savitz D, Schüz J, Simpson J, Swanson J, Tynes T, Verkasalo P, Mezei G. Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Aug 9. [Epub ahead of print]

Measured breakdown voltage and leakage current of line worker boots. Bracken TD, Sias GS, Patterson RM. 2010. IEEE Trans Pwr Deliv 25:508-517.

Exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields in apartment buildings with indoor transformer stations in Israel. Hareuveny R, Kandel S, Yitzhak NM, Kheifets L, Mezei G. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (E-pub: April 21, 2010)

Research supported through the UK Energy Networks Association

Exploring exposure-response for magnetic fields and childhood leukemia.
Kheifets L, Afifi A, Monroe J, Swanson J. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2010 Jul 7. [Epub ahead of print]

Research supported directly

(either directly funded or through the involvement of National Grid staff) 

Risk Governance for Mobile Phones, Power Lines, and Other EMF Technologies. Kheifets L, Swanson J, Kandel S, Malloy TF. Risk Anal. 2010 Aug 17. [Epub ahead of print]

Childhood cancer and magnetic fields from high-voltage power lines in England and Wales: a case–control study. ME Kroll, J Swanson, TJ Vincent and GJ Draper British Journal of Cancer (2010) 103, 1122 – 1127

Pooled analysis of recent studies on magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. L Kheifets, A Ahlbom, C M Crespi, G Draper, J Hagihara, R M Lowenthal, G Mezei, S Oksuzyan, J Schüz, J Swanson, A Tittarelli, M Vinceti and V Wunsch Filho. British Journal of Cancer (2010) 103, 1128–1135.

2011

Research supported through the EMF Biological Research Trust

Maeda K, Wedge CJ, Storey JG, Henbest KB, Liddell PA, Kodis G, Devens Gust, Hore PJ, Timmel CR. 
Spin-selective recombination kinetics of a model chemical magnetoreceptor.
Chem Commun 47: 6563-6565 (2011).

Maeda K, Neil SR, Henbest KB, Weber S, Schleicher E, Hore PJ, Mackenzie SR, Timmel CR.
Following radical pair reactions in solution: a step change in sensitivity using cavity ring-down detection.  
J. Am Chem Soc 133: 17807-17815 (2011).

Jones AR, Samantha J. O. Hardman, Sam Hay, and Nigel S. Scrutton. 
Is there a dynamic protein contribution to the substrate trigger in coenzyme B12-dependent ethanolamine ammonia lyase? 
Angewandte Chemie International Edition 50:10843–10846 (2011).

Research supported through EPRI

Hirata A, Takano Y, Fujiwara O, Dovan T, Kavet R.
An electric field induced in the retina and brain at threshold magnetic flux density causing magnetophosphenes.
Phys Med Biol. 2011 Jul 7;56(13):4091-101. Epub 2011 Jun 21.

Kavet R, Hooper C, Buffler P, Does M.
The relationship between residential magnetic fields and contact voltage: a pooled analysis.
Radiat Res. 2011 Dec;176(6):807-15. Epub 2011 Oct 12

Does M, Scélo G, Metayer C, Selvin S, Kavet R, Buffler P.
Exposure to electrical contact currents and the risk of childhood leukemia.
Radiat Res. 2011 Mar;175(3):390-6. Epub 2010 Dec 8.

Röösli M, Jenni D, Kheifets L, Mezei G.
Extremely low frequency magnetic field measurements in buildings with transformer stations in Switzerland.
Sci Total Environ. 2011 Aug 15;409(18):3364-9.

Olsen, R.G.; Schneider, J.; Tell, R.A.;
Radio Frequency Burns in the Power System Workplace 
Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on Volume: 26 , Issue: 1
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TPWRD.2010.2081691
Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 352 – 359

Vergara XP, Kheifets L, Silva M, Bracken TD, Yost M.
New electric-shock job exposure matrix.
Am J Ind Med. 2011 Nov 8. doi: 10.1002/ajim.21027. [Epub ahead of print]

Research supported through the UK Energy Networks Association

No publications in 2011

Research supported directly

(either directly funded or through the involvement of National Grid staff) 

No publications in 2011

2012

Research supported through the EMF Biological Research Trust

Gene expression profiles in white blood cells of volunteers exposed to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field. Kirschenlohr H, Ellis P, Hesketh R, Metcalfe J. Radiat Res 2012; 178:138-49.

Compass magnetoreception in birds arising from photo-induced radical pairs in rotationally disordered cryptochromes. Lau JC, Rodgers CT, Hore PJ. J R Soc Interface 2012; 9:3329-37.

The magnetic retina: light-dependent and trigeminal magnetoreception in migratory birds. Mouritsen H, Hore PJ. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2012; 22:343-52.

Magnetically sensitive light-induced reactions in cryptochrome are consistent with its proposed role as a magnetoreceptor. Maeda K, Robinson AJ, Henbest KB, Hogben HJ, Biskup T, Ahmad M, Schleicher E, Weber S, Timmel CR, Hore PJ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012; 109:4774-9.

Human cryptochrome-1 confers light independent biological activity in transgenic Drosophila correlated with flavin radical stability. Vieira J, Jones AR, Danon A, Sakuma M, Hoang N, Robles D, Tait S, Heyes DJ, Picot M, Yoshii T, Helfrich-Förster C, Soubigou G, Coppee JY, Klarsfeld A, Rouyer F, Scrutton NS, Ahmad M. PLoS One 2012; 7:e31867.

Reexamination of magnetic isotope and field effects on adenosine triphosphate production by creatine kinase. Crotty D, Silkstone G, Poddar S, Ranson R, Prina-Mello A, Wilson MT, Coey JM. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012; 109:1437-42.

Are biochemical reactions affected by weak magnetic fields? Hore P. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012; 109:1357-8.

Research supported through EPRI

Hirata A, Nagai T, Koyama T, Hattori J, Chan KH, Kavet R. 2012. Dispersive FDTD analysis of induced electric field in human models due to electrostatic discharge. Phys Med Biol 57:4447-58.

Kavet R, Dovan T, Reilly JP. 2012. The relationship between anatomically correct electric and magnetic field dosimetry and publishe delectric and magnetic field exposure limits. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 152:279-95.

Oksuzyan S, Crespi CM, Cockburn M, Mezei G, Kheifets L. 2012. Birth weight and other perinatal characteristics and childhood leukemia in California. Cancer Epidemiol 36:e359-65.

Schuz J, Grell K, Kinsey S, Linet MS, Link MP, Mezei G, Pollock BH, Roman E, Zhang Y, McBride ML, Johansen C, Spix C, Hagihara J, Saito AM, Simpson J, Robison LL, Dockerty JD, Feychting M, Kheifets L, Frederiksen K. 2012. Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and survival from childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: an international follow-up study. Blood Cancer J 2:e98.

Slusky DA, Mezei G, Metayer C, Selvin S, Von Behren J, Buffler PA. 2012. Comparison of racial differences in childhood cancer risk in case-control studies and population-based cancer registries. Cancer Epidemiol 36:36-44.

Tell RA, Sias GG, Vazquez A, Sahl J, Turman JP, Kavet RI, Mezei G. 2012. Radiofrequency fields associated with the Itron smart meter. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 151:17-29.

Vergara XP, Kheifets L, Silva M, Bracken TD, Yost M. 2012. New electric-shock job exposure matrix. Am J Ind Med 55:232-40.

von Winterfeldt D, Kavet R, Peck S, Mohan M, Hazen G. 2012. The value of environmental information without control of subsequent decisions. Risk Anal 32:2113-32.

Zhou L, Schneider J. 2012. A study of RF dosimetry from exposure to an AMI smart meter. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 54:69-80.

Research supported through the UK Energy Networks Association

Occup Med (Lond). 2012 Sep 4. [Epub ahead of print] Cancer incidence in UK electricity generation and transmission workers, 1973-2008. Sorahan T.

Research supported directly

(either directly funded or through the involvement of National Grid staff)

Swanson J, Kheifets L. 2012. Could the geomagnetic field be an effect modifier for studies of power-frequency magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia? J Radiol Prot 32:413-8.

2013

Research supported through the EMF Biological Research Trust

 Investigation of transcriptional responses of juvenile mouse bone marrow to power frequency magnetic fields. Kabacik S, Kirschenlohr H, Raffy C, Whitehill K, Coster M, Abe M, Brindle K, Badie C, Sienkiewicz Z, Bouffler S. Mutat Res 2013; 745-746:40-5.

A radical sense of direction: signalling and mechanism in cryptochrome magnetoreception. Dodson CA, Hore PJ, Wallace MI. Trends Biochem Sci 2013; 38:435-46.

Spin-locking in low-frequency reaction yield detected magnetic resonance. Wedge CJ, Lau JC, Ferguson KA, Norman SA, Hore PJ, Timmel CR. Phys Chem Chem Phys 2013; 15:16043-53.

Relating localized protein motions to the reaction coordinate in coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes. Jones AR, Levy C, Hay S, Scrutton NS. FEBS J 2013; 280:2997-3008.

Spin-selective recombination reactions of radical pairs: Experimental test of validity of reaction operators. Maeda K, Liddell P, Gust D, Hore PJ. J Chem Phys 2013; 139:234309.

Magnetic field effects in flavoproteins and related systems. Evans EW, Dodson CA, Maeda K, Biskup T, Wedge CJ, Timmel CR. Interface Focus 2013; 3:20130037.

Updated structure of Drosophila cryptochrome. Levy C, Zoltowski BD, Jones AR, Vaidya AT, Top D, Widom J, Young MW, Scrutton NS, Crane BR, Leys D. Nature 2013; 495:E3-E4.

Research supported through EPRI

 Kavet R, Tell RA, Olsen RG. 2013. Radiofrequency Contact Currents: Sensory Responses and Dosimetry. Radiat Prot Dosimetry

Kheifets L, Crespi CM, Hooper C, Oksuzyan S, Cockburn M, Ly T, Mezei G. 2013. Epidemiologic study of residential proximity to transmission lines and childhood cancer in California: description of design, epidemiologic methods and study population. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol

Li M, Jones L, Gaillard C, Binnewies M, Ochoa R, Garcia E, Lam V, Wei G, Yang W, Lobe C, Hermiston M, Passegue E, Kogan SC. 2013. Initially disadvantaged, TEL-AML1 cells expand and initiate leukemia in response to irradiation and cooperating mutations. Leukemia 27:1570-3.

Oksuzyan S, Crespi CM, Cockburn M, Mezei G, Kheifets L. 2013. Birth weight and other perinatal factors and childhood CNS tumors: a case-control study in California. Cancer Epidemiol 37:402-9.

Tell RA, Kavet R, Mezei G. 2013. Characterization of radiofrequency field emissions from smart meters. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 23:549-53.

Tell RA, Sias G, Smith J, Sahl J, Kavet R. 2013. ELF magnetic fields in electric and gasoline-powered vehicles. Bioelectromagnetics 34:156-61.

Vergara X, Kheifets L, Greenland S, Oksuzyan S, Cho YS, Mezei G. 2013. Occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and neurodegenerative disease: a meta-analysis. J Occup Environ Med 55:135-46.

Research supported through the UK Energy Networks Association

 

Research supported directly

(either directly funded or through the involvement of National Grid staff)

2014

This is not yet a complete list for 2014.

Research supported through the EMF Biological Research Trust

 Cryptochrome-dependent magnetic field effect on seizure response in Drosophila larvae. Marley R, Giachello CN, Scrutton NS, Baines RA, Jones AR. Sci Rep 2014; 4:5799.

Increased apoptosis and DNA double-strand breaks in the embryonic mouse brain in response to very low-dose X-rays but not 50 Hz magnetic fields. Saha S, Woodbine L, Haines J, Coster M, Ricket N, Barazzuol L, Ainsbury E, Sienkiewicz Z, Jeggo P. J R Soc Interface 2014; 11:20140783.

An electromagnetic field disrupts negative geotaxis in Drosophila via a CRY-dependent pathway. Fedele G, Green EW, Rosato E, Kyriacou CP. Nat Commun 2014; 5:4391-6.

Anthropogenic electromagnetic noise disrupts magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird. Engels S, Schneider NL, Lefeldt N, Hein CM, Zapka M, Michalik A, Elbers D, Kittel A, Hore PJ, Mouritsen H. Nature 2014; 509:353-6.

Alternative radical pairs for cryptochrome-based magnetoreception. Lee AA, Lau JC, Hogben HJ, Biskup T, Kattnig DR, Hore PJ. J R Soc Interface 2014; 11:20131063.

Broadband cavity-enhanced detection of magnetic field effects in chemical models of a cryptochrome magnetoreceptor. Neil SR, Li J, Sheppard DM, Storey J, Maeda K, Henbest KB, Hore PJ, Timmel CR, Mackenzie SR. J Phys Chem B 2014; 118:4177-84.

A Drosophila RNAi collection is subject to dominant phenotypic effects. Green EW, Fedele G, Giorgini F, Kyriacou CP. Nat Methods 2014; 11:222-3.

A chemical compass for bird navigation. Solov'yov IA, Ritz T, Schulten K, Hore PJ. In: Mohseni M, Omar Y, Engel G, Plenio M, editors. Quantum effects in biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; in press.

Research supported through EPRI

 Okokon EO, Roivainen P, Kheifets L, Mezei G, Juutilainen J. 2014. Indoor transformer stations and ELF magnetic field exposure: use of transformer structural characteristics to improve exposure assessment. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 24:100-4.

Slusky DA, Does M, Metayer C, Mezei G, Selvin S, Buffler PA. 2014. Potential role of selection bias in the association between childhood leukemia and residential magnetic fields exposure: A population-based assessment. Cancer Epidemiol 38:307-13.

Tell RA, Kavet R. 2014. A Survey of the Urban Radiofrequency (Rf) Environment. Radiat Prot Dosimetry

Tell RA, Kavet R, Bailey JR, Halliwell J. 2014. Very-low-frequency and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields associated with electric shuttle bus wireless charging. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 158:123-34.

Vergara X, Mezei G, Kheifets L. 2014. Case-control study of occupational exposure to electric shocks and magnetic fields and mortality from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the US, 1991-1999. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol

Chan KH, Ohta S, Laakso I, Hirata A, Suzuki Y, Kavet R. in press. Computational dosimetry for child and adult human models due to contact current from 10 HZ to 110 MHZ. Radiat Prot Dosimetry

Research supported through the UK Energy Networks Association

Occup Med (Lond). 2014 Feb 21. [Epub ahead of print] Magnetic fields and brain tumour risks in UK electricity supply workers. Sorahan T.

Occup Med (Lond). 2014 Feb 21. [Epub ahead of print] Magnetic fields and leukaemia risks in UK electricity supply workers. Sorahan T.

Occup Med (Lond). 2014 Sep;64(6):454-60. Neurodegenerative disease and magnetic field exposure in UK electricity supply workers. Sorahan T, Mohammed N.

Research supported directly

(either directly funded or through the involvement of National Grid staff) 

Residential distance at birth from overhead high-voltage powerlines: childhood cancer risk in Britain 1962-2008 Bunch KJ, Keegan TJ, Swanson J, Vincent TJ, Murphy MFG British Journal of Cancer